# Difference between revisions of "User:IssaRice/Computability and logic/Expresses versus captures"

The expresses versus captures distinction is an important one in mathematical logic, but unfortunately the terminology differs wildly between different texts. The following table gives a comparison.

• Expressing is done by a language. There is only one form of expressing; I think this follows from the wikipedia:Law of excluded middle.
• Capturing is done by a theory or by axioms. There are two forms of capturing: strong capture (corresponding to deciding), and weak capture (corresponding to recognizing, or semi-deciding).

## Capturing functions

For functions, it seems like there are at least four different strengths.

1. $f$ is captured by $\phi(x,y)$ iff for all $m,n$ (i) if $f(m) = n$ then $T \vdash \phi(\overline{m}, \overline{n})$ and (ii) $T \vdash \exists y (\phi(\overline{m}, y) \wedge \forall v(\phi(\overline{m}, v) \to v=y))$.[1]
2. $f$ is captured by $\phi(x,y)$ iff for all $m,n$, if $f(m) = n$, then $T \vdash \forall y (\phi(\overline m,y) \leftrightarrow y = \overline n)$.[1]
3. $f$ is captured by $\phi(x,y)$ iff for all $m,n$ (i) if $f(m)=n$ then $T \vdash \phi(\overline m, \overline n)$, and (ii) if $f(m)\ne n$ then $T \vdash \neg \phi(\overline m, \overline n)$.[1]
4. $f$ is captured by $\phi(x,y)$ iff (i) for all $m,n$, if $f(m) = n$ then $T \vdash \phi(\overline m, \overline n)$, and (ii) we have $T \vdash \forall x \exists y (\phi(x,y) \wedge \forall v (\phi(x,v) \to v=y))$.[1]
5. $f$ is captured by $\phi(x,y)$ iff for all $m,n$ (i) if $f(m)=n$ then $T \vdash \phi(\overline m, \overline n)$, and (ii) if $f(m)\ne n$ then $T \nvdash \phi(\overline m, \overline n)$.[2]

## Comparison of usage patterns

Text "Expresses" "Captures"
Peter Smith. Godel book (see especially footnote 9 on p. 45) expresses captures
Leary & Kristiansen defines represents
Goldrei defines (but the book also uses "represents")[3]
Boolos, Burgess, Jeffrey (5th ed) arithmetically defines[4] defines (for sets), represents (for functions)[4]
Wikipedia arithmetically defines, i think this page uses "defines" in the expresses sense this page uses "represents", but I don't think there's a standalone article for the concept

## References

1. Peter Smith. Godel book, p. 119, 120, 122.
2. Leary and Kristiansen. A Friendly Introduction to Mathematical Logic (2nd ed). p. 121
3. Goldrei. Propositional and Predicate Calculus. p. 137.
4. George S. Boolos; John P. Burgess; Richard C. Jeffrey. Computability and Logic (5th ed). p. 199 for "arithmetically defines". p. 207 for "defines".